TOEIC, Swimming, Ukulele and Health Club

TOEIC, Swimming, Ukulele and Health Club

I had studied TOEIC for a while at an academy which is located in Jongno 3-ga. During my study, I also took three other lessons in the sports centre. I learnt swimming, ukulele and workout. I could not focus on TOEIC because it was really not fun. I felt that I joined the chicken game. The people who were in the class just needed to memorize English words in the small space. I really wanted to get out of the rat race. In this competitive society, it’s hard to find a man of humility. The students were under a lot of stress and they looked very serious. That’s the reason why I tried to learn other things such as a musical instrument and exercise because I live for a healthy and happy life.

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TOEIC Grammar

토익 문법 정리

배동희 기초문법 강의 참조

문장의 형식

1형식: exist, rise / ex) 1형식 동사 + 부사, 동사 뒤 목적어 못 온다.

2형식: S+V+보어(형용사, 명사) / is, become

* remain은 1형식, 2형식 다 된다. 의미로 파악

* become 다음에는 보통 p.p를 쓰지 않는다. 단, 분사 형용사 및 감정유발동사 제외

3형식: S+V+O+부사

4형식: S+V+I.O(사람)+D.O(사물)

5형식: S+V+O+O.C

He made her happy. He had the car shined.

외우자! make 목적어 형용사/ have 목적어 p.p

준동사: 동사를 다른 품사로 바꾼 것

1. 동명사: 명사를 동명사로 전환

Singing a song is fun. I like singing in front of people

* 동명사는 부사가 수식해주고, 명사는 형용사가 수식해준다.·

2. to 부정사

1) 명사적 용법: To give is to love. I want to love somebody.

2) 형용사적 용법: She has the ability to speak a foreign language.

3) 부사적 용법: I went(1형식) to see her. I was pleased to see her.

3. 분사(participle): 동사를 형용사처럼 쓰려고

1) 현재분사(present participle): (~ing), ~하는(행동의 주체를 수식), 능동

– A singing bird. 앞에서 명사 수식하면 한정적용법, 노래하는 새

– A bird is singing. 뒤에서 명사 수식하면 서술적용법, 새가 노래하고 있다.

– I saw a bird (which was) singing. 관계대명사절 생략가능

– I saw a bird singing. 분사가 수식하는 절

2) 과거분사(past participle): 동사의 p.p(past perfect) 형태, 수동

* 1형식 2형식은 목적어가 없으므로 과거분사 없음, 목적어가 있어야 수동을 만들 수 있다.

* 3형식은 과거 분사 있다. : I finished the report. -> The report was finished.

* 3형식은 앞에서 수식할 때는 무조건 과거분사를 써야 한다.

* 과거분사(past participle)와 과거완료(past perfect)는 엄연히 다른 말!

finish             – finished        – finished

present           – past             – past perfect

I finished it. 과거동사

I have finished it. 동사의 일부로 현재완료(present perfect)

It is finished. 과거분사(완성된)

I saw the chair finished by hand. 과거분사 finished가 chair를 꾸며줌

I saw the chair (which was) finished by hand. 과거분사 / 수작업으로 완성된 의자를 나는 보았다.

The ________ N.

1, 2형식 무조건 현재분사(~ing)

3형식 무조건 과거분사(p.p)

The N is ing 목적어존재 / The N is p.p 목적어X

동명사 : 목적이나 용도로 사용 Swimming pool, Sleeping pill

* 분사형 형용사: 분사 같이 생겼지만, 뜻이 보통형용사가 되버린 것

– gifted(재능있는), talented(재능있는), promising(유망한, 촉망되는), dedicated 는 분사형 형용사…

* so, very, quite, relatively, extremely…
– 동사/ 준동사(분사, to부정사 등)를 수식해 줄 수 없다.

– 일반 형용사나 부사를 수식해 준다. very beautiful, very quickly…

– A very promising business. A very exciting business …

– I was pleased to see the result./ I was pleased that it rained.

사역 vs 준사역

사역 동사 + 목적어 + 동사원형 let, make, have …

준사역 동사 + 목적어 + to 부정사 enable, allow, encourage, instruct …

I am planning to go. 3형식 동사로 목적어 있으니까 현재분사.

I am scheduled to go. 준사역 동사 여기서 to 부정사는 목적어가 아니다.

연결어

1. 전치사: 문장 명사(구) I have a plant in my room.

2. 접속사: 문장 – 문장

1) 등위접속사: I like apples and I eat them every day.

2) 종속접속사

a) 명사절 접속사: I know that you did it. / I know if it will rain.

b) 부사절 접속사: Because I love you, I will not leave you.

3. 관계사: 명사 + 문장, 뒷 문장이 앞의 명사를 꾸며 줌

I have a friend who is kind.

I have a friend whom you know.

I have a friend whose name is Kim.

관계대명사 = 접속사 + 주어, 목적격, 소유격

I have a friend who is a good man.

I have a friend (who is) married to a good man.

I have a friend whom you know.

I have a friend (whom) she knows

I have a friend she knows. -> 목적격 관계대명사가 생략되어 있다.

I built a house and we will live in it. -> 관계대명사

I built a house which목적격(and it) we will live in. -> 목적격 관계대명사

I built a house in which we will live. -> 전치사(in), which 앞으로 이동

전치사 뒤에는 목적격 관계대명사

I built a house to which we will move.

~~~~ service to which you have become accustomed. -> 당신에게 익숙해진 서비스를 제공한다.

I have a car and the color of the car is green.

I have a car, of which the color is green.

I have a car, the color of which is green. 사물 목적격관계대명사: which

We hired new designer and all of the designers are women. 관계사

We hired new designer all of whom are women. 사람 목적격관계대명사: whom

선행사 따라 : all of 사람(whom) / 사물(which) * 전치사다음에 목적격을 써야 한다.

선행사, all of whom사람(which사물) …

Although(부사절접속사) we hired new architects, all of them are dead.

단, 부사절접속사가 있으면 이 문장은 더 이상 관계사 문장이 아니다.

(1) 전치사 [preposition] + 명사(구)/동명사(구)/대명사/ I studied English in London.

(i) 전치사구의 형용사적 용법: She is in the room(형용사역할).

(ii) 전치사구의 부사적 용법: She slept(1) in the room(부사역할).

by ~ing, upon ~ing, without ~ing,

for ~ing

1) 형용사용법: This book is for nurturing babies. 밑줄이 book을 꾸며줌

2) 부사적용법: Thank you / for joining the club. 땡큐 끝나고 클럽에 조인

예) They called us for confirmation that S+V. 동격의 명사절

(2) 접속사 [conjunction] : 문장 ___ 문장/ I studied English but I cannot speak English.

(i) 등위접속사 [coordinate conjunction] : and / or / but

두 개의 대등한 절 [대등절]을 연결한다.

I have always loved you and I do love you and I will always love you.

I have loved and do love and will always love you. (여기서는 시제는 상관없음)

I (have loved and do love and will always love) you. 주어 동사 목적어

특징: 앞이나 뒤에서 같은 단어가 생략되어 “병렬구조”를 만들 수 있다.

예: I like oranges but (I) hate grapefruits.

(ii) 종속접속사 [subordinate conjunction]

(a) 명사절 접속사 : that, if, whether 완전한 문장과 쓴다.

He said that he did it. 명사절접속사

(b) 부사절 접속사 : because, although, though, even though, when, while, whereas, since, until, before, after, as, once, now that, so that, if, lest, etc. 완전한 문장과 쓴다.

When he did it, 부사절접속사 I saw him,

(3) 관계사 : ….명사 관계사 문장 / I have a friend (and he=who) is kind. 형용사절

(i) 관계 대명사(불완전문장) [relative pronoun] : who, whom, which, whose, that(형용사절을 만든다)

주격: 사람 who 사물 which

목적격: whom 사물 which = 주격, 목적격은 that 가능 (콤마 전치사X)

소유격: whose 사물 (of which)

I have a friend and he is kind. =  I have a friend who is kind.

I have a friend and I like him. = I have a friend whom I like.

I have a friend she knows him. = I have a friend whom she knows.

I have a friend and his father is my teacher. = I have a friend whose father is my teacher.

(ii) 관계 부사(완전한문장) : when, where(형용사절을 만든다)

예) When

부사절접속사: I went home when you called me. 뒷문장이 앞 문장을 수식

관계부사: I went home Saturday when you called me. 뒷문장이 Saturday 수식

* 관계부사에서 파생한 복합관계부사

Wherever you go, don’t forget us.

Whenever you need help, you can call me.

However you do it, I will trust you. (해석: 어떻게 하든지, 아무리 ~하더라도)

* 복합관계부사 However 쓰임: 형용사, 부사를 끌어다 쓸 수 있다. (No matter how = However)

However difficult my life is, I will not give up.

* 접속부사 However(뜻: 하지만), 그냥 부사역할

S+V+O ; 접속부사, S+V / S+V+O ; S, 접속부사, V+O

접속부사: However(하지만), Therefore(그러므로), Moreover(더욱이), Furthermore(더 나아가서), likewise(마찬가지로), Otherwise(안 그렇다면) …

Unless it is mentioned differently, all photographs in the books are mine.

Unless it is mentioned otherwise, all photographs in the books are mine.

(iv) 복합 관계 대명사 : whoever, whichever, whatever (명사절이나 부사절이 가능하다)

Whichever 어떤 것이든지, Whatever 무엇이든지 (정해지지 않은 경우)

Whoever blesses you(명사절) will be blessed. = Anyone who blesses you(명사절) will be blessed.

Whoever is lonely(명사절) can come

Whoever tries to harm you(부사절), I will protect you. -> 부사절은 쉼표가 있다.

Whomever you marry will be very lucky. (명사절인 경우)

cf. 현대영어에서는 whomever 대신 whoever 사용 가능

Whoever knocks the door, do not ever open it. (부사절인 경우)

Whatever happens is none of your business. (명사절인 경우)

Whatever = anything which 무엇이든지 / Whatever 명사 = any명사 which 무슨명사든지

Whatever you do, always be truthful. (부사절인 경우) = No matter what

I will give you whichever you choose. (명사절인 경우)

Whichever you choose, you can’t go wrong. (부사절인 경우) = No matter which

cf. 복합관계형용사: 명사와 결합할 경우

[ Whichever = anything which / Whatever 명사 = Any 명사 which ]

I will pay for whichever/whatever item you want. (= any item which you want)

접속부사

S+V+O ; 접속부사, S+V

S+V+O ; S, 접속부사, V+O

S+V+O. 접속부사, S+V

* 접속부사 However(뜻: 하지만), 그냥 부사역할

S+V+O ; 접속부사, S+V / S+V+O ; S, 접속부사, V+O

접속부사: However (하지만), Therefore (그러므로), Moreover (더욱이), Furthermore (더 나아가서), likewise (마찬가지로), Otherwise (안 그렇다면), Nonetheless/ Nevertheless (그럼에도 불구하고) etc.

She was very motivated and therefore(접속부사: 생략가능), [she] did her best.

She was very motivated and she, therefore, did her best.

She was very motivated. Therefore, she did her best.

All subscriptions are automatically renewed every year unless requested to do otherwise.

All pictures in this book are those (which were) taken by the author herself unless otherwise mentioned.

Please make your payment by the due date.

Otherwise, you seat may be forfeited.

Unless it is mentioned differently, all photographs in the books are mine.

Unless it is mentioned otherwise, all photographs in the books are mine.

I know what you did. 명사절 / What불완전한 문장과 쓰인다.

I know that you did it. 명사절 / That은 완전한 문장과 쓰인다.

I have a car that you may like. 관계대명사 / 이 문제는 명사절이 아님, 완전, 불완전을 다룰게 아님 …

I gave the company what you purchased.  명사절 / gave가 4형식 동사이므로 명사절이다.

의문부사: I don’t know when he called me. / I don’t know when to call me.

I talked to him Friday when you called me. (관계부사)

I went to the city where you were born. (관계부사)

I will go to Paris where I was born.(관계부사)

I will go to Canada where I will study mechanical engineering.(관계부사)

I was talking to him when you called me. (부사절 접속사)

I don’t know when he called me. (의문부사)

I don’t know when to call me. (의문부사)

(iii) 복합 관계 부사 : whenever, wherever, however* (부사절을 만든다)

Whenever you feel lonely, give me a call.  (=No matter when ~)

Whenever you need help, you can call me.

Wherever you see this logo, you can use this discount card. (=No matter where ~)

Wherever you go, don’t forget me.

However you do it, I will trust you. (=No matter how ~)

However 형/부사

However hard I tried, I failed.

However difficult your life becomes, you must not lose hope.

However often she called him, he did not return her call.

비교하세요: I saw the movie.  However, I did not enjoy it.  (접속부사인 경우: 하지만)

S+V+O. ____, S+V+O. Therefore/ Moreover / Furthermore/ However

(iv) 복합 관계 대명사 : whoever, whichever, whatever (명사절이나 부사절이 가능하다)

Whichever 어떤 것이든지, Whatever 무엇이든지 (정해지지 않은 경우)

Whoever (anyone who) is lonely(명사절) can come

Whoever tries to harm you(부사절), I will protect you. -> 부사절은 쉼표가 있다.

Whoever blesses you(명사절) will be blessed.

Whomever you marry will be very lucky. (명사절인 경우)

cf. 현대영어에서는 whomever 대신 whoever 사용 가능

Whoever knocks the door, do not ever open it. (부사절인 경우) = No matter who

Whatever happens is none of your business. (명사절인 경우)

Whatever = anything which 무엇이든지 / Whatever 명사 = any명사 which 무슨 명사든지

Whatever you do, always be truthful. (부사절인 경우) = No matter what

I will give you whichever you choose. (명사절인 경우)

Whichever you choose, you can’t go wrong. (부사절인 경우) = No matter which

cf. 복합 관계 형용사 [ Whichever/Whatever 명사 = Any 명사 which ]

I will pay for whichever/whatever item you want. (= any item which you want)

Whatever = anyone which

Whatever 명사 = anyone 명사 which

동사(3형식) : What(불완전문장) / That(완전한문장)

3형식동사 that(명사절접속사) 완전문장

사물/사람 that(관계대명사) 불완전문장

cf. 4형식 + IO + DO / 4형식 사람, 사물 that 완전문장

We told the student(사물) that the book arrived(완전문장).

I know what you did. 목적어 없는 불완전한 문장이므로 that 보다는 what이 와야 한다.

I know that you did it. 목적어 있는 완전한 문장이므로 that을 써야 한다.

명사절->완전하면 that 불완전하면 what / 형용사절이면 that

I want to know what the job entails(3형식동사, 수반하다).

사물/사람 that(관계대명사) 불완전문장

I met the person that you talked about. 밑줄이 person을 꾸며주는 관계대명사

What불완전해야 한다.

1) 의문대명사 (what +  불완전한 문장 / “무엇”이라고 해석되는 경우)

I want what you want. 너가 원하는 것을 나도 원한다.

Tell me what you want. 너가 뭘 원하는지 말해달라.

What do you want?

I know what you want.

cf. 의문형용사인 경우: I know what color you like. / I want what book you want.

cf. I don’t know what to do at this point. (의문사 + to 부정사 = 명사구)

2) 선행사가 포함된 관계 대명사 (= the thing which / “것”이라고 해석되는 경우))

I want what you want. You can take what you want. (= You can take what you want)

3형식동사 that(명사절접속사) 완전문장

사물/사람 that(관계대명사) 불완전문장

cf. 4형식 + IO + DO / 4형식 사람, 사물 that 완전문장

We told the student(사람) that the book arrived(완전문장).

I know what you did. 목적어 없는 불완전한 문장이므로 that 보다는 what이 와야 한다.

I know that you did it. 목적어 있는 완전한 문장이므로 that을 써야 한다.

명사절->완전하면 that 불완전하면 what / 형용사절이면 that

I want to know what the job entails(3형식동사, 수반하다).

그 일은 어떤 일이 수반되는지 나는 알 수 있다.

사물/사람 that(관계대명사) 불완전문장

I met the person that you talked about. 밑줄이 person을 꾸며주는 관계대명사

I met the person that you admire(3형식). 밑줄이 person을 꾸며주는 관계대명사(형용사절)

의문사 (명사절이나 명사구를 만든다)

(1) 의문대명사 (what + 불완전한 문장 / “무엇”이라고 해석되는 경우)

의문대명사: who, whom, which, what + 불완전한 문장

I know who did it. / I want to know who you are. / I know whom you like.

cf. 현대영어에서는 의문대명사 whom 대신에 who 를 사용할 수 있다.

I want what you want. 너가 원하는 것을 나도 원한다.

Tell me what you want. 너가 뭘 원하는지 말해달라.

What do you want? I know what you want.

cf. 의문형용사인 경우: I know what color you like. / I want what book you want.

cf. I don’t know what to do at this point. (의문사 + to 부정사 = 명사구)

* 선행사가 포함된 관계 대명사 (= the thing which / “것”이라고 해석되는 경우))

You can take what you want. (= You can take what you want)

(2) 의문형용사: whose, which, what + 명사 + 불완전한 문장

I want to know whose book is better / I know whose bag it is.

I won’t be able to figure out which bag is mine unless I open both of them.

I don’t know which of these bags belong to me. (which 뒤에 bag 생략됨)

(3) 의문부사: when, where, how, why + 완전한 문장

I don’t know when I was born. -> 명사절

비교하세요: I was ten when you were born (부사절 접속사) -> 부사절

I studied abroad in 1989 when you were not even born. (관계부사) -> 형용사절

완전한 문장 VS 불완전한 문장

부사절 :

1) 부사절접속사 – 부사절

2) 복합관계부사 – 부사절

3) 복합관계대명사 – 명사절, 부사절 둘다…

명사절 :

1) 명사절접속사 – that, if – 완전문장과 사용

2) 의문부사 – when, why, where, how – 완전문장과 사용

3) 의문대명사/ 의문형용사 – 불완전문장과 사용

4) 복합관계대명사 – 불완전문장과 사용

형용사 :

1) 관계대명사

2) 관계부사

That

3형식동사 that (명사절접속사) 완전문장

사물/사람 that (관계대명사) 불완전문장

cf. 4형식 + IO + DO / 4형식 사람,사물 that 완전문장

We told the student(사물) that the book arrived(완전문장).

(1) 명사절 접속사인 경우 (that + 완전한 문장)

She said that she liked him.

That she left him was sad. (= It was sad that she left him)

Despite the fact that she left him, Saul still loved her. (동격의 명사절)

cf. news, announcement, way, reason, reassurance, notion + that절

(2) 관계대명사인 경우 (that + 불완전한 문장)

I like the car that you drive. (=which)

She is the author that I admire. (=whom)

The event that took place last night was wonderful. (=which)

(3) 지시 대명사인 경우 (단수 취급)

That is a great news! / I didn’t like that very much!

My house is bigger than that of my cousin. (문장 앞부분에서 언급한 명사가

다른 존재하는 것을 가리키려고 다시 등장하는 경우 대신 쓰는 대명사)

if/them 단순하게 똑 같은 것 반복할 경우,

that/those 똑 같은 것 아니고 단어만 같은 경우,

one/ones 같은 단어지만 존재하지 않은 경우,

My house has a fence around it. it은 앞의 house를 반복한다

My house is bigger than that of my cousin. that은 앞의 house가 아닌 다른 것을 의미

My last name is usually shorter than those of my American friends. 같은 단어지만 존재 않은 경우

cf. You can take any seat in the auditorium except for those in the front row,

If you forgot to bring your backpack, you can rent one at the camping site. 대명사one 넣는다.

If your batteries run out, you can buy new ones with this coupon. 존재하지 않은 다른 것들.

(4) 지시 형용사인 경우 (반드시 단수명사나 불가산명사를 수식)

I think that piano is off tune. (= I think that piano is off tune)

That piece of furniture looks very elegant.

(5) so 형용사/부사 that 주어 + 동사 ;  such [a] [형용사] 명사 that 주어 + 동사

예: She was so kind that everyone liked her.

So many people came that hardly any seat was left.

She was such a great singer that everyone was amazed.

She is such a person that most people avoids her.

cf. 고어적 용법: It was so funny a story that everyone laughed.

(= It was such a funny story that everyone laughed.)

종속절? 이름에서 대명사가 들어가면 불완전한 문장

명사절

1) 명사절접속사 : that, if, whether+완전

2) 복합관계대명사 : whoever, whatever+불완전

3) 복합관계형용사 : whichever+N

4) 의문사 : 의문대명사who,  what+불완전, 의문형용사+N+불완전, 의문부사+완전

부사절

1) 부사절접속사 : because, Although…

2) 복합관계대명사/형용사 – 부사+S+V+O, S+V 부사절은 쉼표 반드시

3) 복합관계부사

형용사절 1) 관계대명사

2) 관계부사

도치

1) 의문문 2) If생략 3) 부정어/ 보어 문두로 이동 4) so/as 도치

S + 조 -> 조 + S

S + be -> Be + S

I am so cold -> So am I

S + have/had p.p -> have/had S p.p

I have never loved you. -> Never have I loved you. -> Hardly have I loved you.

준부정어 hardly, rarely, seldom, scarcely 는 부정적 의미로 도치가 될 수 있다.

Only after 6 can you call me. Only 가 부정적의미로 쓰여서 can과 you가 도치가 되었다.

Under no circumstances(절대 안 된다), By no means(어떤 식으로든 안 된다), On no account(어떤 이유로도 안 된다.) 도치

He was happy and so was she. / He was happy as was she.

He was not sad and neither was she. / He was not sad nor was she.

Never before has…

수량형용사

One (apple 생략) of my apples is … -> One of my apples is

Two, Few, Several, Many of my apples are

Some, Most, All of my apples/apple are/ is

cf. one/ each of the, my, those … 한정사 필요, 복수여도 is 단수 사용

one, each (apple 생략가능) of (중에서) my (한정사필요) apples (복수명사) is (단수동사)…

some, most, all of my friends (복수명사) are (복수동사)… / one of my friends is …

* All of the workers are women. 그 일꾼들 중에 모든 일꾼들…

생략 가능한 표현

1) 목적격 관계대명사 (whom/ which)

목적격 관계대명사 생략 되는 걸 어떻게 아느냐? 문장에서 명사 나온 후 갑자기 주어 동사 나온 경우

예) I have a book (which) you wrote. ~ 명사 (목적격관계대명사) 주어 동사

2) 주격관계대명사 + be동사 -> 반드시 둘(주어, 동사) 동시에 생략해야 한다.

I have a book (which was) written by you.

3) 명사절 접속사 : He said (that) he was happy.

whoever = anyone who

whoever is p.p = anyone (who is) p.p = anyone p.p

anyone p.p … 동사 / whoever is p.p … 동사

She is(동사) interested(과거분사) in the job.

The job interested(과거시제 동사) many people.

Everyone (who is) p.p. / Anyone (who is) p.p. / Those (who are) p.p.

TOEIC 500 Words

ability: 능력 (_____ to speak fluently)
absenteeism: 결근* (repeated ____ )
access: 접근권한* (have ____ to)
accessible: 접근이 가능한 (make it ___ to someone)
accommodate: 수용하다* (____ a large party)
accompanied: 동반된* (unless ____ by an adult)
accomplished: 성공한 (an _____ musician)
accordance: 부합 (in ____ with)
accordingly: 상응하여*
account: 계좌 (a checking _____)
accrue: 적립하다. (_____ interest; ____ sick leave credits)
accurately: 정확히 (_____ account for)
acknowledge: 인정하다
acquisition: 인수 (= take-over)
additional: 추가적인* (at an ____ cost)
adequately: 적절히 (must be ____ wrapped)
adopt: 채택하다 (______ a new method)
advances: 발전* (The ____ in medical technology)
advantage: 유리한 점 (take ____ of)
advertisement: 광고 (an ______)
advice: 충고 (give an _____)
affect: 영향을 끼치다.* (will ____ the outcome)
affix: 부착하다.* (____ the label)
affordable: 저렴한* (at an _____ rate)
agenda: 안건 (a printed ____)
agreement: 동의 (reach an ______)
aggressively: 적극적으로 (____ pursue)
aim: 목표 (with the ____ of)
aimed: 겨냥한 (sports gear ____ at young teenagers)

air-tight: 꽉 닫힌 (_____ container)
allocate: 할당하다* (____ the resources)
allow: 허용하다 (____ 사람 to 부정사)
already: 벌써 (have ____ arrived in time for)
alternative: 대안/대체* (feasible _____s to fossil fuels; an _____ plan)
analysis: 분석 (the final _____)
announcement: 발표 (make an _____)
annual: 연례의 (_____ conference)
apparel: 의상
appliance: 기기 (home ____)
applicable: 적용되는* (____ sales tax)
applicant: 지원자
application: 지원(서)
apply: 지원하다, 적용되다 (The term was applied to)
appointment: 예약 (make an _______)
appraisal: 감정, 평가* (performance ______)
appreciation: 감사 (showed their ____ for)
apprehension: 불안감 (___ among the employees)
appropriately: 적절하게* (should dress _____ for the occasion)
approval: 승인* (the final ____)
approximately: 대략 (in ____ one hour)
arbitration: 중재 (_____ began)
argumentative: 논쟁적인 (became _____)
arrangement: 사전 준비 (make an _____)
assignment: 과제 (give an ______)
assistant: 비서, 보조 (an ____ to)
association: 연합 (in ____ with)
attached: 부착된* (the ____ form)
attendance: 참석* (the poorest ______ record)
attendant: 접대원 (a flight ____)
attendee: 참석자
attire: 의상* (formal _____; professional _____)
audit: 감사 (receive an _____)
authority: 권위자 (the authority in the field)
authorization: 허가 (with written _____)
automated: 자동화된* (the ____ assembly line)
available: 주어진, 쓸 수 있는 (is readily _____ upon request)
awards: 상 (_____ ceremony)

barely: 겨우 (with _____ eight weeks left)
barring: 제외하면 (_____ extreme fluctuations)
beautification: 미화* (city ______ project)
benefits: 혜택 (_____ package; salary and _____)
boost: 활성화하다 (____ sales of the product)
branch: 지사 (____ office)
breakage: 파손 (to prevent any _____)
broaden: 넓히다 (____ the research into a few areas)
brochure: 소책자 (a very informative and interesting ______)
budget: 예산 (_____ proposal)

cancellation: 취소 (is subject to ______)
candidate: 후보 (the most qualified _____)
cash: 현금화하다 (_____ a check)
capable: 능력 있는 (_____ of)
capacity: 용량* (storage ______)
caution: 주의/주의를 주다 (with ______; must _____ young students)
cautiously: 신중하게* (_____ optimistic)
certain: 확실한 (X make certainly that)
certificate: 증서 (a _____ of authenticity)
chemical: 화학(품) (X chemist producing company)
child-proof: 어린이 안전용 (_____ safety lock)
choice: 선택한 것 (your ____ of soup)
cite: 인용하다. (____ employee satisfaction as)
clear: 맑은 (on a ____ day)
closer: 더욱 더 정밀한 (upon _____ examination)
cognizant 인식하는 (be _____ of)
collaborate: 협력하다. (_____ on)
collate: 대조하다 (_____ their thoughts)
collection: 소장품, 수집품* (museum ______; ceramic tile collection)
collectively: 집합적으로
commensurate: 비례하는 (remuneration ____ with their experience)
commercial: 방송광고
commitment: 서약, 책임감 (a lack of ______)
commodity: 기초 물품 (____ prices)
commuter: 통근자
comparable: 비교할 만한 (____ to)
comparison: 비교 (in ____ with: 비교하여)
compatible: 호환성 있는 (____ with)
compensate: 보상하다 (____ for the injury)
competition: 경쟁(사)
complacent: 게으른 (become _____)
complimentary: 무료의 (____ light breakfast)
complex: 복잡한; 시설단지 (a ____ process; sports ____)
comply: 순응하다 (____ with the building codes)
comprehensive: 종합적인 (a _____ guide to the region)
concerning: ~에 관한
concurrently: 동시에 (The product and packaging are ____ developed)
condense: 압축하다, 요약하다. (____ the book/file into)
confident: 확신 있는 (____ in)
confidentiality: 기밀 (______ agreement)
confirmation: 확인 (written ______)
confiscate: 압수하다. (____ the stolen property)
conjunction: 결합 (in _____ with)
conscious: 의식하는 (____ of)
consecutively: 연속적으로
consent: 동의 (with a written _____)
considerable: 상당한 (_____ amount)
consistently: 지속적으로*
consult: 조회하다. (Please, ______ the product manual)
contact: 연락하다. (Please, ______ the customer service center)
continually: 계속 (are _____ dumping pollutants)
contribution: 공헌, 기부금 (make ____ to)
control: 통제 (beyond ______: 어쩔 수 없는)
convenience: 편의 (for your ______)
cooperatively: 협조하여 (work ______)
cordially: 진심으로 (You are ____ invited)
correspondence: 서신 연락 (the business _____ on this matter)
corrosion: 부식 (resistant to ______)
cost-effective: 저렴한* (____ method)
costly: 값 비싼 (a ____ item)
coverage: 적용, 보도 (media _____; insurance ______)
conveyed: 전달된 (The information should be ________ to)
criticism: 비평 (sharp ______)
currently: 현재 (is ____ under construction)
custody: 구금 (taken into _____)

damaged: 파손된 (____ luggage)
dedicated: 헌신적인; 전용이 (a ____ worker; ____ telephone lines)
dedication: 헌신
defects: 결함
defiance: 대항하여 (in ____ of)
defy: 배반하다 (____ description: 형용할 수 없는)
demand: 수요 (much _____ for cars; ___ for seats at the seminar)
demanding: 까다로운 (an overly _____ supervisor)
demoralized: 사기가 저하된. (employees were very _______)
deposit: 입금, 예치금 (security ____: 보증금; make a _____)
description: 설명, 묘사 (for more extensive _____ of the product)
designated:지정된 (____ seats: 지정석)
desirous: 갈망하는 (is _____ of)
detailed: 상세한 (for more ____ information)
deteriorating: 약화되는 (deteriorating conditions)
development: 개발 (all phases of project _______)
differently: 다르게 (____ colored patterns)
dignitary: 유명인사 (the local ____)

dilute: 희석시키다
discretion: 판단 (at the ____ of)
disperse: 흩어지다 (_____ the crowd/population)

diversify: 다각화하다 (The conglomerate decided to ______)
divided: 나눠진 (is ____ into)
dividends 수익 배당금 (paying _____ on its common stock.
division: 부서* (automobile _____)
donate: 기부하다 (____ money/blood)
dramatically: 급격히* (increase ______)
drape: 천으로 덮다 (_____ the table)
duplicate: 사본 2통 (in _____)
durable: 내구성 있는 (_____ goods; a very ____ material)

effect: 효과, 효력 (come/go into _____)
efficiently: 효율적으로* (as ______ as possible)
effective: 효과적인 (an ___ sales campaign)
effort: 노력 (in an ____ to)
electronically: 이메일로, 전신으로 (sent ______)
eligible: 자격이 되는 (be _____ to 부정사; be ______ for 명사)
emphasis: 강조 (place an ____ on)
enable: 가능하게 하다* (____ A to 부정사)
enclosed: 동봉된, 지붕이 덮인 (The shopping center is _____)
endangered: 멸종위기의 (_____ species)
engraved: 새겨진 (A watch ____ with your intials)
enhance: 향상시키다
entitled: 자격이 되는 (____ to 명사)
enthusiasm: 열정 (with such _____ that)
equip: 설치하다* (A with B)
escort: 수행하다 (She will ____ you to ~)
estimated: 예상되는 (the _____ time of arrival)
exactly: 정확히 (to decide _____)
exception: 예외 (with the ______ of)
exceptional: 이례적인 (show an _____ job performance)
excitedly: 흥분되어 (spoke _____ about)
exclusively: 전적으로, 제한적으로 (_____ for today’s busy executives)
existing: 기존에 있는 (make use of the ____ facilities)
expansion: 확장 (business ______ plan)
expansive: 광범위한* (an _____ view of the landscape)
expectation: 기대하는 바* (The _____ is that S+V)
expedite: 신속화하다 (to ____ the handling of your call)
expense: 비용 (at the owner’s _____)
experience: 경험하다 (If you ____ any problem with)
expiration: 만기, 만료 (the _____ date)
exposure: 노출 (too much ____ to sunlight)
extend: 연장하다 (____ the deadline)
extensively: 대대적으로 (was _____ renovated)
extinction: 멸종 (are in danger of ______)
extremely: 극도로 (be ____ careful)
evacuate: (건물 등을) 비우다, 대피하다
evaluation: 평가 (_____ card; course _____s)
eventually: 결국에는 (will _____ need to be modernized)

fabric: 천 (a soft ____)
faced: 직면된 (Faced with)
factions: 당파들 (split into a number of rival _____)
familiarize: 익숙하게 하다 (familiarize A with B)
fascinated: 매혹된 (with)
favorable: 유리한 (____ weather condition)
favorably: 우호적으로 (has bee received _____)
feats: 위업들
feature: 특징, 기능, 특별히 선보이다. (will ____ a report on)
finally: 결국* (have ____ been)
findings: 발견한 사실들 (was consistent with his findings)
finished: 완성된 (the _____ product)
fiscal: 회계의 (____ year; ____ responsibility)
fitness: 헬스 (physical _____ program)
flexibility: 융통성, 유연성 (X the flexible of)
focus: 초접을 맞추다 (will ____ our study on~)
forecast: 전망 (a long-term economic _____; the local weather _____)
formal: 공식의 (____ dinner)
forfeit: 몰수당하다
foreseeable: 내다보이는 (in the _____ future)
fortunate: 행운의
foster: 육성하다 (___ good relations between A and B)
freshness: 신선함* (retain _____ and flavor)
further: 추후의, 추가적인 (until ____ notice)

gauge: 측정하다 (____ the reaction of the consumers)
gratuity: 팁 (standard _____)
grandeur: 웅장함 (former _____)
guidelines: 지침사항들 (within the _____)

handle: 다루다 (cannot ____ the workload)
hardly: 거의 ~하지 않는다. (He ____ ever comes to the meeting)
hazardous: 위험한 (is ____ to your health)
heavily: 많이 (rely ____ on; will rain ____ tomorrow)
hesitantly: 우물쭈물 (rather _____)
highly: 매우 (____ competitive market; ____ successful careers)
honor: 명예 (in ___ of)

identification:신분 (two forms of proper _____)
immediate: 직속 (______ supervisor)
imperative: 중요한* (It is ____ that S+동사원형)
implement: 실행하다. (will _____ changes)
improve: 개선시키다. (_____ customer relations)
inaugurate: 개시하다* (____ the route between A and B)
incidental: 부가적인 (_____ expenses)
inconvenience: 불편한 것 (what is seen as _____ by one culture)
inclement: 매서운 (_____ weather)
incompetent: 무능한 (an ____ employee)
inconsistent: 불일치의 (is _____ with)
increasingly: 점점 더
indicated: 명시된, 표시된 (as _____ on the chart)
indication: 표시, 징표 (a good _____ of)
inform: 통보하다
informative: 교육적인* (is both _____ and interesting)
informed: 박식한* (____ decision; _____ readers)
inherently: 본질적으로 (_____ risky business)
initial: 약식서명하다 (should _____ the time cards)
initiative: 솔선수범 (take the _____)
innovative: 혁신적인 (a fresh and _____ idea)
insert: 삽입하다. (___ your card into the electronic reader)
install: 설치하다
installments: 할부 (금액) (three easy monthly ______)
intended: 의도된 (is ____ for publication)
interested: 관심이 있는 (be ______ in)
interpretation: 해석 (the _____ of the authorities in the field)
interfere: 방해하다* (Dust can ____ with)
involved: 관여된* (____ in)
irrelevant: 무관한 (is ____ to us)
itinerary: 일정 (travel _____)

juvenile: 미성년의 (a _____ crime)

labor: 노동; 일하다 (who ____ed outdoors)
lag: 처지다; 지체 (____ behind the schedule; suffering from a jet ___)
largely: 주로 (due ____ to)
lasting: 지속되는 (leave a _____ impression; have a ____ effect on))
launch: 시작하다 (____ a new sales campaign)
lawsuit: 소송 (to file a ______)
lax: 느슨한 (be ____ in)
lease: 임대하다* (____ a car)
level: 단계, 위치 (he rose to the ____ of the vice president)
likely: 확률이 있는* (it is _____ that; is ___ to)
limited: 제한된 (for a _____ time only)
live: 생방송의 (a ____ broadcast)
local: 지역의 (____ production; ____ high school)
locally: 지역적으로 (prefer to hire _____ than ~ overseas)
lucrative: 수익성이 있는 (a highly _____ business)

mandatory: 필수적인
maintenance: 유지관리 (a regular ____ schedule)
malfunction: 고장 (due to a mechanical ____)
mandatory: 필수의
marginal: 적은 양의 (there is only ____ interest in)
maximum: 최대량 (at the ______; ____ security)
means: 수단 (the preferred ____ of travel; by ____ of)
memoirs: 회고록 (published his ______)
merged: 합병된 (Once _____)
minimum: 최소량 (a ____ of)
misplaced: 잘못 두어진
missing: 분실된, 실종된 (____ luggage; _____ child)
modification: 수정 (make the necessary ______)
monopoly: 독점 (has a ____ on)
monitor: 감시하다 (should ____ the progress of each employee)
mounting: 가중되는 (____ pressure from the public)
mural: 벽화 (the _____ on the wall)
mutually: 상호간에 (reach a _____ beneficial solution)

narrow: 좁히다 (____ down the list of candidates to three)
needs: 욕구 (meet the _____)
negotiations: 협상들 (_____ are under way)
neutrality: 중립성 (her ______ was called into question)
nominate: 공천하다
normal: 정상의 (during the ____ business hours)
notice: 공고, 알아채다.* (X notify the paintings on the wall)
notification: 통보
notify: 통보하다* (___ A of B; ___ A that S+V)
numerous: 수많은 (____ attempts have been made)

objective: 목표 (the _____ of)
observance: 준수 (in _____ of the national holiday)
observe:준수하다 (___ the “no-smoking” sign:금연사인을 지키다)
offer: 제안, 특별 가격 제안 (a promotional _____)
onset: 시작하는 시접 (at the ____ of the game)
openings: 빈 자리 (job _____)
opposing: 상반된 (the ____ point of view)
optimistic: 낙관적인* (is _____ that S+V)
outfit: 의복 (put on a new ____)
outstanding: 뛰어난; 미지급된 (_____ qualifications; an ____ debt)
overcome: 극복하다 (____ this temporary difficulty)
overdue: 연체된 (The library book was 5 days _____)
overhead: 머리 위의 *(the ______ compartment)

participate: 참가하다 (___ in)
participation: 참여 (the _____ of each member)
particularly: 유난히 (are _____ small)
parties: 당사자들 (all interested _____ should contact)
perfect: 완벽한, 최적의 (is the _____ setting for)
periodical: 정기간행물 (____ section)
permit: 허가증 (To purchase a parking ____)
personal: 개인의 (_____ checks)
personally: 개인적으로 (The president ____ welcomed)
persuasively: 설득력 있게 (present arguments ______)
phase: 단계 (at the last _____ of the construction)
portion: 부분, 몫 (this ____ of the city)
potential: 가능한; 가능성 (______ customers/bidders; a full ______)
precipitation: 강수 (temperature and _____ data)
preclude: 사전에 막다
predict: 예상하다 (X many predicts)
premium: 할증금 (insurance _____)
prescription: 처방 (fill the _____)
present: 주다 (will ____ a plaque and a check to)
presiding: 주재하는 (the _____ officer/judge)
presumably: 추측컨대
prevalent: 널리 퍼진 (once so _____ in this province)
primarily: 주로 (made ____ of plastic)
print: 인쇄 (out of ____:절판된)
priority: 우선순위 (the highest ______)
procedure: 절차 (X the required procedural)
proceeding: 진행되다 (The work was ____ as scheduled)
proceeds:수익금
processing: 처리 (for _____ processing)
procrastinate: 게으름을 피우다.
production: 생산(량) (good _____ facilities)
productivity: 생산성 (employee ______)
prohibited: 금지된
promotion: 승진 (He received a ______)
promptly: 신속히 (must be answered _____)
properly: 올바르게 (must be ____ aligned; to function _____)
prospective: 잠재 (_______ buyer/client/customer)
prosperity: 번영 (in times of _____)
protective: 보호용 (____ clothing; ____ equipment)
provide: 제공하다 (A with B)
provision: 대비 (make ____ for)
proxy: 대리인 (You can send your _____ instead)
punitive: 징벌의 (in _____ damages)

qualified: 자격이 되는 (is the better ____ of the two; ____ applicants)
quality: 품질 (____ control: 품질관리)
quarterly: 사분기의 (the _____ earnings report)

raise: 인상(하다); 제기하다 (a pay ____; ___ questions about)
rarely: 거의 ~ 못하다 (____ has the situation been~)
reach: 도달하다 (____ an agreement)
realistically: 현실적으로 (cannot _____ expect)
readily:기꺼이 (___ available: 기꺼이 사용 가능한)
recall: 회수 (issue a ____ notice)
recently: 최근에 (according to a ____ issued government report)
reception: 접대 (at the ______ )
recommendation: 추천 (on the _____ of)
reference: 참조 (in ____ to)
redeemable: 상환 가능한
reduction: 감소* (cost _____)
reference: 참고, 추천 (in _____ to; a letter of ______)
refund: 환불 (a ___ refund: 전액환불)
regarding: ~에 관한
regretably: 후회스럽게도 (we must ____ inform you that S+V)
regular: 정규의 (____ banking hours)
reimbursement: 배상 (request a _____ for; monthly _____)
request: 요구* (All ____ must be made)
required: 필수의 (a ____ tax document)
released: 발표된 (a recently released press report)
reliable: 믿을 만한* (is completely _____)
remainder: 나머지 (for the ____ of the month)
remittance: 송금 (a _____ slip)
remuneration: 보상, 보수 (will give some _____ to)
rendered: 되다 (was ____ useless)
repair: 수리(하다) (the cost of _____)
replace: 교체하다 (A with B)
relatively: 상대적으로 (_____ speaking,)
required: 필수의 (the ____ tax documents)
reservation: 예약 (make a ____)
resignation: 사임 (the _____ of the personnel director)
respect: 존중심* (with _____)
respectively: 제각기
respond: 응답하다 (_____ promptly to the client’s request)
response: 응답 (in _____ to)
responsibility: 책임* (environmental and social ______)
responsive: 반응을 보이는 (is ____ to)
restore: 재건하다, 복원되다 (____ to its original condition)
result: 결과 (as a ____ of)
retirement: 은퇴 (a _____ party/banquet; early ______)
retrieval: 복구 (the information _____ system)
reveal: 공개하다 (reveal a strong preference for)
revenues: 수입 (tax ____ over three years)
revised: 개정된* (_____ edition; _____ premium rate)
revolution: 혁명 (caused a ______; a cultural ____)
rich: 풍부한 (a ____ source of information)
rise: 상승; 상승하다 (the ____ in the oil price; on the ____)
risk: 위험률 (run a ____ of; ___ premium 위험수당)
rival: 경쟁자; 경쟁상대의

salary: 급여 (____ history: 연봉 경력)
satisfaction: 만족* (customer ______)
satisfactory: 만족스런 (a ____ excuse/outcome)
savings: 저축 (____ banks)
scrutinize: 면밀히 조사하다 (_____ the vase)
securely: 안전하게* (must be _____ fastened/anchored)
seldom: 거의 ~않는다. (He ____ comes to the regular meeting)
selection: 엄선된 것들 (includes only a _____ of those retailers who)
separately: 따로 (Each lens is made _____)
service: 서비스* (customer _____ desk)
settlement: 합의 (finally reached a ______)
severely: 심하게 (will be _____ reprimanded for)
share: 몫, 주식, 점유율 (market _____)
significantly: 상당히 (increased ______)
simply: 단순히 (_____ too few; ____ fill out the enclosed form)
skilled: 숙련된 (a ____ labor)
slightly: 약간 (is ____ higher than)
sophisticated: 정교한 (a _____ equipment)
speeding: 과속 (was ticketed for _____)
specific: 구체적인 (for more _____ information)
spending: 지출 (the development ______)
sponsor: 후원자; 후원하다
stable: 안정적인 (remained _____)
staff: 스탭진 (X all staffs)
standards: 기준 (safety _____)
stir: 휘젓다 (thoroughly ____ the mixture)
stock: 물량 (out of ____)
stockholder: 주주 (the company’s _____)
strategic: 전략적인 (a _____ objective of the company)
strategy: 전략 (a creative advertising ___; an effective marketing ___)
streamline: 간소화하다.
striking: 놀라운 (_____ difference between them)
strongly: 강력히 (it is _____ recommended that S+V)
subject:* 가능한* (is ____ to change)
subscription: 구독 cf. subscribe to ~에 구독하다.
substantial: 상당한 (a ____ amount of)
successful: 성공적인 (X to highly successive careers)
sufficiently: 충분히
superior: 월등한 (is ____ to)
sure: 확실한* (X make surely that)
surprise: 놀람 (taken by ____)
surprisingly: 놀랍게도 (is ____ low in fat)
surrounding: 둘러싼* (in the ______ area)
suspicious 의심하는 (be _____ of)

tax: 세금 (sales ____ on)
telecommunications: 정보통신 (______ industry)
tentative: 임시의 (discussing a _____ agreement)
temporarily: 일시적으로 (was ____ suspended; is ____ closed)
terms: 용어들 (in the strongest possible ____)
timely: 적기의 (in a ____ manner)
toll: 요금 (____ collection: 요금 징수)
transaction: 거래 (was charged for each ____)
transcribe: 받아 적다 (had her ____ the minutes)
transfer: 전근 (put in for a _____: 전근을 신청하다)
transferable: 양도 가능한 (The tickets are not _____ to)

unanimous: 만장일치의 (a ____ support/decision)
unbiased: 편견 없는 (an ____ opinion/advice)
understanding: 이해심이 많은 (for being so ______)
updated: 개정된 (____ report/edition/manual)
unlimited: 무제한의 (____ mileage/access)
unoccupied: 차지된 (remained ______)
unusually: 이례적인 (____ high staff turnover)
user-friendly: 사용이 편리한 (_____ computer software)

vacant: 비어 있는 (X vacancy lot)
valuables: 귀중품 (Do not leave any ______ unattended)
vary: 다양하게 변하다. (the results may _____ depending on~)
varied: 다양한
ventilation: 환기 (good ______)
vested: 기득의 (___ interest: 기득권)
voluntarily: 자원해서

waiver: 면제 (request a _____)
wane: 쇠퇴 (on the _____)
warranty: 보증 (comes with a limited five-year ______)
willing: 의지가 있는 (is ____ to help; ____ to buy)
workload: 업무량 (a heavy _____)
written: 서면 상의 (a ____ confirmation/notification)