TOEIC, Swimming, Ukulele and Health Club

TOEIC, Swimming, Ukulele and Health Club

I had studied TOEIC for a while at an academy which is located in Jongno 3-ga. During my study, I also took three other lessons in the sports centre. I learnt swimming, ukulele and workout. I could not focus on TOEIC because it was really not fun. I felt that I joined the chicken game. The people who were in the class just needed to memorize English words in the small space. I really wanted to get out of the rat race. In this competitive society, it’s hard to find a man of humility. The students were under a lot of stress and they looked very serious. That’s the reason why I tried to learn other things such as a musical instrument and exercise because I live for a healthy and happy life.

2014.12.21 (825), 2015.1.10 (845) and 2015.1.25 (885)

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Idioms : Telephoning

Idioms : Telephoning

Answering the phone

  • Good morning / afternoon / evening, ABC company, Harry speaking.
  • This is Harry speaking?
  • How can I help you?
  • Could you speak up, please?
  • Who’s speaking, please?
  • Am I speaking to…?
  • Could you spell that please?
  • Who would you like to talk to sir / madam?
  • One moment please, I’ll see if Miffy is available.

Asking for someone

  • I’d like to speak to…
  • Could I speak to Miffy?
  • Could you put me through to Miffy, please?

Problems

  • I’m sorry, I don’t understand.
  • I cannot hear you very well.
  • You must have dialled the wrong number.
  • I’ve tried to get through several times, but it’s always engaged.

Putting someone through

  • I’ll put you through to Miffy.
  • I’ll connect you to Miffy.
  • I’ll put Miffy on the line.
  • I’m sorry, there’s no reply from Miffy.

Putting someone on hold

  • Just a moment, please
  • Hold on, please
  • Hold the line, please

Asking someone to call back

  • Thank you for waiting. I’m afraid Harry is not in at the moment.
  • I’m sorry, Harry is in a meeting.
  • Could you call back later in the day?

Taking a message

  • Can I take a message?
  • Would you like to leave a message?
  • Can I give Miffy a message?
  • I’ll tell Miffy that you called.
  • I’ll make sure Miffy rings you as soon as possible.
  • At what number can you be reached?

Telephoning

Telephoning in a language which is not your own is not easy. You should be aware that the person you are speaking to may have difficulties too. Therefore keep the following points in mind :

  • Speak clearly. Use clear articulation and try to avoid difficult words and long sentences if it is not necessary to use them.
  • Do not speak too fast. Keep in mind that many people tend to speak to fast when they are nervous. Hardly anyone every speaks too slowly.
  • Confirm what you have understood. This is especially important if the other person gives addresses or dates.
  • Be polite. Start and end the conversation politely. Try to avoid being too direct. In English this is often done by sing would. Compare : I want some more information – I would like to have some more information.
  • Know the telephone alphabet. This is particularly import if you have to spell names and address. You should also know the names of symbols which are used in names and addresses, such as the hyphen and the tilde.
  • Know frequently used expressions.
  • Listen carefully, so that you do not need to ask the other person to repeat information.
Symbols

Symbols

Spelling Over the Telephone

Spelling Over the Telephone

Source : My English Teacher

Travel English – at the Airport

여행 영어 (Travel English)

At the Airport

A: Is this the check-in counter for the flight to Seoul?

B: Yes, that’s right. May I see your passport?

A: Here you are. I’d like a window seat, please.

B: Ok, let me check. Could you put your bag o the scale, please?

A: When will we be able to board?

B: Boarding will begin at 10:30 at Gate 2.

A: Thank you.

A: Where do I go to catch my connection?

B: What’s your connecting flight number?

A: American Air ATA 121.

B: It’s boarding now at Gate 1. Walk straight down that way.

.

A: May I see your passport?

B: Yes, here it is.

A: What’s your purpose in America?

B: Sightseeing. / I’m here on business.

.

A: How long will you be staying?

B: I’ll be here a week.

A: Where are you staying?

B: At the Hi hotel in downtown

.

A: Do you have anything to declare?

B: No, nothing to declare.

A: Ok, then. Please use the Green Lane.

B: Where is the baggage claim area?

A: Over there.

B: All right. Thank you.

.

A: I can’t find my bag.

B: Can I see your claim tag? What flight did you arrive on?

A: ATA 121.

B: Ok, please fill out this form.

.

I’d like to confirm my reservation.

I’d like an aisle / window seat, please.

Is the plane going to arrive on time?

How long will it be delayed?

Are you travelling alone?

These are my personal belongings.

I need an interpreter.

How much is the excess baggage charge?

What does your bag look like?

Travel English – Basic Conversation

여행 영어 (Travel English)

Recently, I realize that the basic of English is very important

 Basic Conversation

A: Nice to meet you.

B: It has been a long time. / Long time no see.

A: How are you? / How is it going?

B: Pretty good / So so / Not so good

A: You look down. What’s wrong?

.

A: What’s your destination?

A: Where you headed to? (American) and To where are you headed? (British)

B: I’m going to Seoul.

A: Me too! By the way, can I ask your name?

B: I’m Harry Baek. Just call me Harry.

A: Hello, Miffy. Nice to meet you

B: Hi, Harry. Where are you from?

A: I’m from Seoul, Korea. How about you?

B: I’m from Taiwan.

.

A: It’s a pity but I have to go. Thanks, I had a good time.

B: So did I.

A: Take care, all right? And have a nice trip.

B: You too! Thank you for your kind words.

A: Do you understand what I’m saying?

B: Pardon? Could you speak more slowly?

A: Oh, OK. Sorry about that.

B: No problem.

A: Could you do me a favor?

B: Sure. What is it?

A: Could you hold my bags for a minute?

B: Sure, no problem.

.

A: Thank for your help.

B: You’re welcome. It’s my pleasure.

A: You’re so kind.

.

A: Excuse me, but I think that’s my seat.

B: Really? Let me check my ticket… Oops! I’m sorry. It’s my mistake.

A: No problem.

.

No, thank you. You’re right.

I don’t think so.

That’s all.

All right.

No problem = Never mind.

I see = I got it.

You don’t have to do that.

That’s enough. (X)

Have a good trip.

TOEIC Grammar

토익 문법 정리

배동희 기초문법 강의 참조

문장의 형식

1형식: exist, rise / ex) 1형식 동사 + 부사, 동사 뒤 목적어 못 온다.

2형식: S+V+보어(형용사, 명사) / is, become

* remain은 1형식, 2형식 다 된다. 의미로 파악

* become 다음에는 보통 p.p를 쓰지 않는다. 단, 분사 형용사 및 감정유발동사 제외

3형식: S+V+O+부사

4형식: S+V+I.O(사람)+D.O(사물)

5형식: S+V+O+O.C

He made her happy. He had the car shined.

외우자! make 목적어 형용사/ have 목적어 p.p

준동사: 동사를 다른 품사로 바꾼 것

1. 동명사: 명사를 동명사로 전환

Singing a song is fun. I like singing in front of people

* 동명사는 부사가 수식해주고, 명사는 형용사가 수식해준다.·

2. to 부정사

1) 명사적 용법: To give is to love. I want to love somebody.

2) 형용사적 용법: She has the ability to speak a foreign language.

3) 부사적 용법: I went(1형식) to see her. I was pleased to see her.

3. 분사(participle): 동사를 형용사처럼 쓰려고

1) 현재분사(present participle): (~ing), ~하는(행동의 주체를 수식), 능동

– A singing bird. 앞에서 명사 수식하면 한정적용법, 노래하는 새

– A bird is singing. 뒤에서 명사 수식하면 서술적용법, 새가 노래하고 있다.

– I saw a bird (which was) singing. 관계대명사절 생략가능

– I saw a bird singing. 분사가 수식하는 절

2) 과거분사(past participle): 동사의 p.p(past perfect) 형태, 수동

* 1형식 2형식은 목적어가 없으므로 과거분사 없음, 목적어가 있어야 수동을 만들 수 있다.

* 3형식은 과거 분사 있다. : I finished the report. -> The report was finished.

* 3형식은 앞에서 수식할 때는 무조건 과거분사를 써야 한다.

* 과거분사(past participle)와 과거완료(past perfect)는 엄연히 다른 말!

finish             – finished        – finished

present           – past             – past perfect

I finished it. 과거동사

I have finished it. 동사의 일부로 현재완료(present perfect)

It is finished. 과거분사(완성된)

I saw the chair finished by hand. 과거분사 finished가 chair를 꾸며줌

I saw the chair (which was) finished by hand. 과거분사 / 수작업으로 완성된 의자를 나는 보았다.

The ________ N.

1, 2형식 무조건 현재분사(~ing)

3형식 무조건 과거분사(p.p)

The N is ing 목적어존재 / The N is p.p 목적어X

동명사 : 목적이나 용도로 사용 Swimming pool, Sleeping pill

* 분사형 형용사: 분사 같이 생겼지만, 뜻이 보통형용사가 되버린 것

– gifted(재능있는), talented(재능있는), promising(유망한, 촉망되는), dedicated 는 분사형 형용사…

* so, very, quite, relatively, extremely…
– 동사/ 준동사(분사, to부정사 등)를 수식해 줄 수 없다.

– 일반 형용사나 부사를 수식해 준다. very beautiful, very quickly…

– A very promising business. A very exciting business …

– I was pleased to see the result./ I was pleased that it rained.

사역 vs 준사역

사역 동사 + 목적어 + 동사원형 let, make, have …

준사역 동사 + 목적어 + to 부정사 enable, allow, encourage, instruct …

I am planning to go. 3형식 동사로 목적어 있으니까 현재분사.

I am scheduled to go. 준사역 동사 여기서 to 부정사는 목적어가 아니다.

연결어

1. 전치사: 문장 명사(구) I have a plant in my room.

2. 접속사: 문장 – 문장

1) 등위접속사: I like apples and I eat them every day.

2) 종속접속사

a) 명사절 접속사: I know that you did it. / I know if it will rain.

b) 부사절 접속사: Because I love you, I will not leave you.

3. 관계사: 명사 + 문장, 뒷 문장이 앞의 명사를 꾸며 줌

I have a friend who is kind.

I have a friend whom you know.

I have a friend whose name is Kim.

관계대명사 = 접속사 + 주어, 목적격, 소유격

I have a friend who is a good man.

I have a friend (who is) married to a good man.

I have a friend whom you know.

I have a friend (whom) she knows

I have a friend she knows. -> 목적격 관계대명사가 생략되어 있다.

I built a house and we will live in it. -> 관계대명사

I built a house which목적격(and it) we will live in. -> 목적격 관계대명사

I built a house in which we will live. -> 전치사(in), which 앞으로 이동

전치사 뒤에는 목적격 관계대명사

I built a house to which we will move.

~~~~ service to which you have become accustomed. -> 당신에게 익숙해진 서비스를 제공한다.

I have a car and the color of the car is green.

I have a car, of which the color is green.

I have a car, the color of which is green. 사물 목적격관계대명사: which

We hired new designer and all of the designers are women. 관계사

We hired new designer all of whom are women. 사람 목적격관계대명사: whom

선행사 따라 : all of 사람(whom) / 사물(which) * 전치사다음에 목적격을 써야 한다.

선행사, all of whom사람(which사물) …

Although(부사절접속사) we hired new architects, all of them are dead.

단, 부사절접속사가 있으면 이 문장은 더 이상 관계사 문장이 아니다.

(1) 전치사 [preposition] + 명사(구)/동명사(구)/대명사/ I studied English in London.

(i) 전치사구의 형용사적 용법: She is in the room(형용사역할).

(ii) 전치사구의 부사적 용법: She slept(1) in the room(부사역할).

by ~ing, upon ~ing, without ~ing,

for ~ing

1) 형용사용법: This book is for nurturing babies. 밑줄이 book을 꾸며줌

2) 부사적용법: Thank you / for joining the club. 땡큐 끝나고 클럽에 조인

예) They called us for confirmation that S+V. 동격의 명사절

(2) 접속사 [conjunction] : 문장 ___ 문장/ I studied English but I cannot speak English.

(i) 등위접속사 [coordinate conjunction] : and / or / but

두 개의 대등한 절 [대등절]을 연결한다.

I have always loved you and I do love you and I will always love you.

I have loved and do love and will always love you. (여기서는 시제는 상관없음)

I (have loved and do love and will always love) you. 주어 동사 목적어

특징: 앞이나 뒤에서 같은 단어가 생략되어 “병렬구조”를 만들 수 있다.

예: I like oranges but (I) hate grapefruits.

(ii) 종속접속사 [subordinate conjunction]

(a) 명사절 접속사 : that, if, whether 완전한 문장과 쓴다.

He said that he did it. 명사절접속사

(b) 부사절 접속사 : because, although, though, even though, when, while, whereas, since, until, before, after, as, once, now that, so that, if, lest, etc. 완전한 문장과 쓴다.

When he did it, 부사절접속사 I saw him,

(3) 관계사 : ….명사 관계사 문장 / I have a friend (and he=who) is kind. 형용사절

(i) 관계 대명사(불완전문장) [relative pronoun] : who, whom, which, whose, that(형용사절을 만든다)

주격: 사람 who 사물 which

목적격: whom 사물 which = 주격, 목적격은 that 가능 (콤마 전치사X)

소유격: whose 사물 (of which)

I have a friend and he is kind. =  I have a friend who is kind.

I have a friend and I like him. = I have a friend whom I like.

I have a friend she knows him. = I have a friend whom she knows.

I have a friend and his father is my teacher. = I have a friend whose father is my teacher.

(ii) 관계 부사(완전한문장) : when, where(형용사절을 만든다)

예) When

부사절접속사: I went home when you called me. 뒷문장이 앞 문장을 수식

관계부사: I went home Saturday when you called me. 뒷문장이 Saturday 수식

* 관계부사에서 파생한 복합관계부사

Wherever you go, don’t forget us.

Whenever you need help, you can call me.

However you do it, I will trust you. (해석: 어떻게 하든지, 아무리 ~하더라도)

* 복합관계부사 However 쓰임: 형용사, 부사를 끌어다 쓸 수 있다. (No matter how = However)

However difficult my life is, I will not give up.

* 접속부사 However(뜻: 하지만), 그냥 부사역할

S+V+O ; 접속부사, S+V / S+V+O ; S, 접속부사, V+O

접속부사: However(하지만), Therefore(그러므로), Moreover(더욱이), Furthermore(더 나아가서), likewise(마찬가지로), Otherwise(안 그렇다면) …

Unless it is mentioned differently, all photographs in the books are mine.

Unless it is mentioned otherwise, all photographs in the books are mine.

(iv) 복합 관계 대명사 : whoever, whichever, whatever (명사절이나 부사절이 가능하다)

Whichever 어떤 것이든지, Whatever 무엇이든지 (정해지지 않은 경우)

Whoever blesses you(명사절) will be blessed. = Anyone who blesses you(명사절) will be blessed.

Whoever is lonely(명사절) can come

Whoever tries to harm you(부사절), I will protect you. -> 부사절은 쉼표가 있다.

Whomever you marry will be very lucky. (명사절인 경우)

cf. 현대영어에서는 whomever 대신 whoever 사용 가능

Whoever knocks the door, do not ever open it. (부사절인 경우)

Whatever happens is none of your business. (명사절인 경우)

Whatever = anything which 무엇이든지 / Whatever 명사 = any명사 which 무슨명사든지

Whatever you do, always be truthful. (부사절인 경우) = No matter what

I will give you whichever you choose. (명사절인 경우)

Whichever you choose, you can’t go wrong. (부사절인 경우) = No matter which

cf. 복합관계형용사: 명사와 결합할 경우

[ Whichever = anything which / Whatever 명사 = Any 명사 which ]

I will pay for whichever/whatever item you want. (= any item which you want)

접속부사

S+V+O ; 접속부사, S+V

S+V+O ; S, 접속부사, V+O

S+V+O. 접속부사, S+V

* 접속부사 However(뜻: 하지만), 그냥 부사역할

S+V+O ; 접속부사, S+V / S+V+O ; S, 접속부사, V+O

접속부사: However (하지만), Therefore (그러므로), Moreover (더욱이), Furthermore (더 나아가서), likewise (마찬가지로), Otherwise (안 그렇다면), Nonetheless/ Nevertheless (그럼에도 불구하고) etc.

She was very motivated and therefore(접속부사: 생략가능), [she] did her best.

She was very motivated and she, therefore, did her best.

She was very motivated. Therefore, she did her best.

All subscriptions are automatically renewed every year unless requested to do otherwise.

All pictures in this book are those (which were) taken by the author herself unless otherwise mentioned.

Please make your payment by the due date.

Otherwise, you seat may be forfeited.

Unless it is mentioned differently, all photographs in the books are mine.

Unless it is mentioned otherwise, all photographs in the books are mine.

I know what you did. 명사절 / What불완전한 문장과 쓰인다.

I know that you did it. 명사절 / That은 완전한 문장과 쓰인다.

I have a car that you may like. 관계대명사 / 이 문제는 명사절이 아님, 완전, 불완전을 다룰게 아님 …

I gave the company what you purchased.  명사절 / gave가 4형식 동사이므로 명사절이다.

의문부사: I don’t know when he called me. / I don’t know when to call me.

I talked to him Friday when you called me. (관계부사)

I went to the city where you were born. (관계부사)

I will go to Paris where I was born.(관계부사)

I will go to Canada where I will study mechanical engineering.(관계부사)

I was talking to him when you called me. (부사절 접속사)

I don’t know when he called me. (의문부사)

I don’t know when to call me. (의문부사)

(iii) 복합 관계 부사 : whenever, wherever, however* (부사절을 만든다)

Whenever you feel lonely, give me a call.  (=No matter when ~)

Whenever you need help, you can call me.

Wherever you see this logo, you can use this discount card. (=No matter where ~)

Wherever you go, don’t forget me.

However you do it, I will trust you. (=No matter how ~)

However 형/부사

However hard I tried, I failed.

However difficult your life becomes, you must not lose hope.

However often she called him, he did not return her call.

비교하세요: I saw the movie.  However, I did not enjoy it.  (접속부사인 경우: 하지만)

S+V+O. ____, S+V+O. Therefore/ Moreover / Furthermore/ However

(iv) 복합 관계 대명사 : whoever, whichever, whatever (명사절이나 부사절이 가능하다)

Whichever 어떤 것이든지, Whatever 무엇이든지 (정해지지 않은 경우)

Whoever (anyone who) is lonely(명사절) can come

Whoever tries to harm you(부사절), I will protect you. -> 부사절은 쉼표가 있다.

Whoever blesses you(명사절) will be blessed.

Whomever you marry will be very lucky. (명사절인 경우)

cf. 현대영어에서는 whomever 대신 whoever 사용 가능

Whoever knocks the door, do not ever open it. (부사절인 경우) = No matter who

Whatever happens is none of your business. (명사절인 경우)

Whatever = anything which 무엇이든지 / Whatever 명사 = any명사 which 무슨 명사든지

Whatever you do, always be truthful. (부사절인 경우) = No matter what

I will give you whichever you choose. (명사절인 경우)

Whichever you choose, you can’t go wrong. (부사절인 경우) = No matter which

cf. 복합 관계 형용사 [ Whichever/Whatever 명사 = Any 명사 which ]

I will pay for whichever/whatever item you want. (= any item which you want)

Whatever = anyone which

Whatever 명사 = anyone 명사 which

동사(3형식) : What(불완전문장) / That(완전한문장)

3형식동사 that(명사절접속사) 완전문장

사물/사람 that(관계대명사) 불완전문장

cf. 4형식 + IO + DO / 4형식 사람, 사물 that 완전문장

We told the student(사물) that the book arrived(완전문장).

I know what you did. 목적어 없는 불완전한 문장이므로 that 보다는 what이 와야 한다.

I know that you did it. 목적어 있는 완전한 문장이므로 that을 써야 한다.

명사절->완전하면 that 불완전하면 what / 형용사절이면 that

I want to know what the job entails(3형식동사, 수반하다).

사물/사람 that(관계대명사) 불완전문장

I met the person that you talked about. 밑줄이 person을 꾸며주는 관계대명사

What불완전해야 한다.

1) 의문대명사 (what +  불완전한 문장 / “무엇”이라고 해석되는 경우)

I want what you want. 너가 원하는 것을 나도 원한다.

Tell me what you want. 너가 뭘 원하는지 말해달라.

What do you want?

I know what you want.

cf. 의문형용사인 경우: I know what color you like. / I want what book you want.

cf. I don’t know what to do at this point. (의문사 + to 부정사 = 명사구)

2) 선행사가 포함된 관계 대명사 (= the thing which / “것”이라고 해석되는 경우))

I want what you want. You can take what you want. (= You can take what you want)

3형식동사 that(명사절접속사) 완전문장

사물/사람 that(관계대명사) 불완전문장

cf. 4형식 + IO + DO / 4형식 사람, 사물 that 완전문장

We told the student(사람) that the book arrived(완전문장).

I know what you did. 목적어 없는 불완전한 문장이므로 that 보다는 what이 와야 한다.

I know that you did it. 목적어 있는 완전한 문장이므로 that을 써야 한다.

명사절->완전하면 that 불완전하면 what / 형용사절이면 that

I want to know what the job entails(3형식동사, 수반하다).

그 일은 어떤 일이 수반되는지 나는 알 수 있다.

사물/사람 that(관계대명사) 불완전문장

I met the person that you talked about. 밑줄이 person을 꾸며주는 관계대명사

I met the person that you admire(3형식). 밑줄이 person을 꾸며주는 관계대명사(형용사절)

의문사 (명사절이나 명사구를 만든다)

(1) 의문대명사 (what + 불완전한 문장 / “무엇”이라고 해석되는 경우)

의문대명사: who, whom, which, what + 불완전한 문장

I know who did it. / I want to know who you are. / I know whom you like.

cf. 현대영어에서는 의문대명사 whom 대신에 who 를 사용할 수 있다.

I want what you want. 너가 원하는 것을 나도 원한다.

Tell me what you want. 너가 뭘 원하는지 말해달라.

What do you want? I know what you want.

cf. 의문형용사인 경우: I know what color you like. / I want what book you want.

cf. I don’t know what to do at this point. (의문사 + to 부정사 = 명사구)

* 선행사가 포함된 관계 대명사 (= the thing which / “것”이라고 해석되는 경우))

You can take what you want. (= You can take what you want)

(2) 의문형용사: whose, which, what + 명사 + 불완전한 문장

I want to know whose book is better / I know whose bag it is.

I won’t be able to figure out which bag is mine unless I open both of them.

I don’t know which of these bags belong to me. (which 뒤에 bag 생략됨)

(3) 의문부사: when, where, how, why + 완전한 문장

I don’t know when I was born. -> 명사절

비교하세요: I was ten when you were born (부사절 접속사) -> 부사절

I studied abroad in 1989 when you were not even born. (관계부사) -> 형용사절

완전한 문장 VS 불완전한 문장

부사절 :

1) 부사절접속사 – 부사절

2) 복합관계부사 – 부사절

3) 복합관계대명사 – 명사절, 부사절 둘다…

명사절 :

1) 명사절접속사 – that, if – 완전문장과 사용

2) 의문부사 – when, why, where, how – 완전문장과 사용

3) 의문대명사/ 의문형용사 – 불완전문장과 사용

4) 복합관계대명사 – 불완전문장과 사용

형용사 :

1) 관계대명사

2) 관계부사

That

3형식동사 that (명사절접속사) 완전문장

사물/사람 that (관계대명사) 불완전문장

cf. 4형식 + IO + DO / 4형식 사람,사물 that 완전문장

We told the student(사물) that the book arrived(완전문장).

(1) 명사절 접속사인 경우 (that + 완전한 문장)

She said that she liked him.

That she left him was sad. (= It was sad that she left him)

Despite the fact that she left him, Saul still loved her. (동격의 명사절)

cf. news, announcement, way, reason, reassurance, notion + that절

(2) 관계대명사인 경우 (that + 불완전한 문장)

I like the car that you drive. (=which)

She is the author that I admire. (=whom)

The event that took place last night was wonderful. (=which)

(3) 지시 대명사인 경우 (단수 취급)

That is a great news! / I didn’t like that very much!

My house is bigger than that of my cousin. (문장 앞부분에서 언급한 명사가

다른 존재하는 것을 가리키려고 다시 등장하는 경우 대신 쓰는 대명사)

if/them 단순하게 똑 같은 것 반복할 경우,

that/those 똑 같은 것 아니고 단어만 같은 경우,

one/ones 같은 단어지만 존재하지 않은 경우,

My house has a fence around it. it은 앞의 house를 반복한다

My house is bigger than that of my cousin. that은 앞의 house가 아닌 다른 것을 의미

My last name is usually shorter than those of my American friends. 같은 단어지만 존재 않은 경우

cf. You can take any seat in the auditorium except for those in the front row,

If you forgot to bring your backpack, you can rent one at the camping site. 대명사one 넣는다.

If your batteries run out, you can buy new ones with this coupon. 존재하지 않은 다른 것들.

(4) 지시 형용사인 경우 (반드시 단수명사나 불가산명사를 수식)

I think that piano is off tune. (= I think that piano is off tune)

That piece of furniture looks very elegant.

(5) so 형용사/부사 that 주어 + 동사 ;  such [a] [형용사] 명사 that 주어 + 동사

예: She was so kind that everyone liked her.

So many people came that hardly any seat was left.

She was such a great singer that everyone was amazed.

She is such a person that most people avoids her.

cf. 고어적 용법: It was so funny a story that everyone laughed.

(= It was such a funny story that everyone laughed.)

종속절? 이름에서 대명사가 들어가면 불완전한 문장

명사절

1) 명사절접속사 : that, if, whether+완전

2) 복합관계대명사 : whoever, whatever+불완전

3) 복합관계형용사 : whichever+N

4) 의문사 : 의문대명사who,  what+불완전, 의문형용사+N+불완전, 의문부사+완전

부사절

1) 부사절접속사 : because, Although…

2) 복합관계대명사/형용사 – 부사+S+V+O, S+V 부사절은 쉼표 반드시

3) 복합관계부사

형용사절 1) 관계대명사

2) 관계부사

도치

1) 의문문 2) If생략 3) 부정어/ 보어 문두로 이동 4) so/as 도치

S + 조 -> 조 + S

S + be -> Be + S

I am so cold -> So am I

S + have/had p.p -> have/had S p.p

I have never loved you. -> Never have I loved you. -> Hardly have I loved you.

준부정어 hardly, rarely, seldom, scarcely 는 부정적 의미로 도치가 될 수 있다.

Only after 6 can you call me. Only 가 부정적의미로 쓰여서 can과 you가 도치가 되었다.

Under no circumstances(절대 안 된다), By no means(어떤 식으로든 안 된다), On no account(어떤 이유로도 안 된다.) 도치

He was happy and so was she. / He was happy as was she.

He was not sad and neither was she. / He was not sad nor was she.

Never before has…

수량형용사

One (apple 생략) of my apples is … -> One of my apples is

Two, Few, Several, Many of my apples are

Some, Most, All of my apples/apple are/ is

cf. one/ each of the, my, those … 한정사 필요, 복수여도 is 단수 사용

one, each (apple 생략가능) of (중에서) my (한정사필요) apples (복수명사) is (단수동사)…

some, most, all of my friends (복수명사) are (복수동사)… / one of my friends is …

* All of the workers are women. 그 일꾼들 중에 모든 일꾼들…

생략 가능한 표현

1) 목적격 관계대명사 (whom/ which)

목적격 관계대명사 생략 되는 걸 어떻게 아느냐? 문장에서 명사 나온 후 갑자기 주어 동사 나온 경우

예) I have a book (which) you wrote. ~ 명사 (목적격관계대명사) 주어 동사

2) 주격관계대명사 + be동사 -> 반드시 둘(주어, 동사) 동시에 생략해야 한다.

I have a book (which was) written by you.

3) 명사절 접속사 : He said (that) he was happy.

whoever = anyone who

whoever is p.p = anyone (who is) p.p = anyone p.p

anyone p.p … 동사 / whoever is p.p … 동사

She is(동사) interested(과거분사) in the job.

The job interested(과거시제 동사) many people.

Everyone (who is) p.p. / Anyone (who is) p.p. / Those (who are) p.p.