Research: An introduction / MLA Citation: Rules and Guidelines


A Presentation at Seneca College for EAP 500 students

RESEARCH: An introduction

Why is research important?

  • “Standing on the shoulders of giants”

How do we evaluate sources?

  • Accuracy & Reputation

Why do we cite?

  • Intellectual property
  • “Trail” of knowledge

MLA CITATION: Rules and Guidelines

The Modern Language Association (MLA) citation and format style is used in the disciplines of Humanities.

EVALUATING SOURCES:

Valid

Not Valid

Books

Wikipedia

Major   newspapers (print & online)

Other   encyclopedias

Peer-reviewed   journals

Personal   Websites (blogs)

Websites   with extensions .edu or .org

Websites   that are not official

1)      BOOKS:

  • Author’s name
  • Title of the book
  • Edition of the book (if it is not the first)
  • Place of Publication
  • Publisher
  • Year of Publication
  • Medium of publication (Print or Web)

Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Medium of Publication.

2)      WEBSITES:

  • Author and/or editor names (if available)
  • Article name in quotation marks (if applicable)
  • Title of the Website, project, or book in italics.
  • Any version numbers available, including revisions, posting dates, volumes, or issue numbers.
  • Publisher information, including the publisher name and publishing date.
  • Take note of any page numbers (if available).
  • Medium of publication.
  • Date you accessed the material.
  • URL (if required, or for your own personal reference; MLA does not require a URL).

Editor, author, or compiler name (if available). Name of Site. Version number.

Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), date of resource creation (if available). Medium of publication. Date of access.

Newspaper Article

Author(s). “Title of Article.” Title of Periodical Day Month Year: pages. Medium of publication.

Formatting

First Page:

  • Do not make a title page for your paper unless specifically requested.
  • In the upper left-hand corner of the first page, list your name, your instructor’s name, the course, and the date.
  • Double space again and center the title. Do not underline, italicize, or place your title in quotation marks; write the title in Title Case (standard capitalization), not in all capital letters.

In the Text:

  • Use quotation marks and/or italics when referring to other works in your title, just as you would in your text: Exploring the theme of “affordability” in Michael Pollan’s In Defense of Food.
  • When paraphrasing or summarizing another author’s idea, indicate the author’s name as well as the page number where the idea was found in brackets:

Ex1: City dwellers purchase their foods from supermarkets. However, supermarkets are selling more and more items that are not ‘real’ food but rather “food-like products” (Pollan, 13).

Ex2: City dwellers purchase their foods from supermarkets. According to Michael Pollan, however, many items sold in supermarkets are not real food but are rather “food-like” products (13).

How to Imbed Quotations

Michael Pollan argues, “______________________________________”.

Example: Michael Pollan argues, “nutritionism tends to foster a great deal of anxiety around the experience of shopping for food and eating it” (53).

According to Michael Pollan, “_______________________________”.

Example: According to Michael Pollan, “nutritionism [leads to] a great deal of anxiety around the experience of shopping for food and eating it” (53).

– “__________________________________”, according to Michael Pollan. (or argues Michael Pollan).

“Nutritionism [causes] a great deal of anxiety around the experience of shopping for food and eating it”, according to Michael Pollan (53).

Checkov’s character states, “__________________________________________”.

Example: Checkov’s character states, “I dress in black to match my life. I am unhappy” (1).

– Moira Farr claims,  “______________________________________________”.

Example: Moira Farr (argues, claims, contends, insists) “our troubles now are those of overexposure, of too much communication that is unimportant, and too little of what truly is”.

  • Never have a quotation stand as its own complete sentence.
  • Remember, the quotation must fit into the grammatical structure of your own sentence!

Wrong: In Omnivore’s Dilemma Michael Pollan’s argument is that “Eat food. Not too much. Mostly plants”.

Wrong: Moira Farr’s argument “our troubles now are those of overexposure”.

  • Two rules for your Work Cited:  Alphabetize and Indent.

Work Cited

Earth Hour – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. Accessed on March 17, 2012.

MLA Works Cited Page: Books. The Purdue OWL. Purdue U Writing Lab, 2010. Web.  Accessed on March 17, 2012. <http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/06/>.

Pollan, Michael. In Defense of Food: An Eater’s Manifesto. New York: Penguin, 2008. Print.

The Purdue OWL. Purdue U Writing Lab, 2010. Web. Accessed on March 8, 2012.

York University News & Events. York University. 2012. Web. Accessed on March 17, 2012.

Once you’ve mastered the art of citing, you can use this little helper: http://www.easybib.com/

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